The Taxation of Permanent Establishments
An International Perspective

By Radhakishan Rawal

The Taxation of Permanent Establishments
Paperback, 551 pages
Published: 1st October 2006
ISBN: 9781904905455
Format: 229mm x 152mm
£75.00

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Published: 28th May 2010
ISBN: 9781904905547
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Category: Tax


The dramatic advances in communications and technology that have taken place in recent years, combined with the progressive development of the Indian economy, have enticed many multi-national companies to tap the rich resources which India has to offer in terms of front-line business support services and customer relations. This has thrust the Indian tax system into the limelight, with multi-nationals and their advisers now needing to become familiar with the relevant aspects of Indian tax law and practice, and in particular, how India approaches the concept of permanent establishment and the circumstances in which a liability to tax in India could arise. This book's principal theme is the taxation of permanent establishments, taking as its starting point the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) model convention on the avoidance of double taxation, and examining how the Indian courts and India's law-makers have interpreted the rules governing attribution of profits. Some of the issues and concepts may appear to be well settled and some are new.

Contents

Foreword      iii

Preface     v

About the Author. viii

Acknowledgements. x

List of Abbreviations. xi

Cases Cited / Discussed.. xii

Circulars Cited / Analysed.. xvii

Contents    xix

Chapter 1: Taxation of Business Profits. 1

1.1              Taxation of an ‘Enterprise’ 1

1.1.1         Taxation of a resident v. taxation of an enterprise. 2

1.1.2         Permanent Establishment of an enterprise v. Permanent Establishment of a resident 4

1.1.3         Business profits of an enterprise v. business profits of a resident 4

1.1.4         Expenditure of an enterprise v. expenditure of a person. 5

1.1.5         Reference in OECD Discussions drafts on Attribution of Profits to Permanent Establishment 5

1.1.6         DTAAs not referring to ‘enterprise’ 5

1.1.7         ‘Enterprise’ under the DTAA v. ‘Enterprise’ in terms of the domestic law.. 6

1.2              Taxation of ‘Business profits’ 8

1.2.1         General meanings of ‘business’ 8

1.2.2         ‘Business’ in terms of the domestic law.. 9

1.2.3         ‘Business’ in terms of DTAA.. 9

1.2.4         Business Income v. Investment Income. 10

1.2.5         Does DTAA determine character of the income?. 11

1.3              Rate of tax applicable to the profits of a Permanent Establishment  13

1.4              Special treatment to insurance business. 14

Chapter 2: Para 1 of Article 7. 16

2.1              Taxation of profits of Permanent Establishment in the country of residence  17

2.1.1         Alternate view – no taxation in the country of residence. 18

2.1.2         Decisions dealing with taxation of profits attributable to the Permanent Establishment in the country of source  19

2.2              “Profits of an enterprise”. 23

2.2.1         The relevant business activity approach. 24

2.2.2         Functionally separate entity approach. 25

2.2.3         Can the profits taxable in the country of Permanent Establishment exceed the overall profits of the enterprise?  26

2.3              Attribution of profits. 28

2.3.1         What is “Attributable to”?. 28

2.3.2         Why to attribute?. 28

2.3.3         How to attribute?. 28

2.3.4          “Attributable to” in terms of the domestic law.. 29

2.4              Variations of Para 1 of Article 7. 31

2.4.1         DTAAs signed by India. 31

2.4.2         DTAAs signed by UK.. 32

2.4.3         DTAAs signed by USA.. 33

2.4.4         DTAAs signed by Netherlands. 33

2.4.5         DTAAs signed by China. 34

Chapter 3: Force of Attraction Rule.. 35

3.1              Force of Attraction Rule. 35

3.1.1         Role of Permanent Establishment in direct business?. 36

3.1.2         Extent of attribution. 36

3.1.3         ‘Force of attraction and Article 11(4), 12(3) etc. 38

3.1.4         Period of Permanent Establishment and ‘force of attraction rule’ 39

3.1.5         Uncertainties arising from ‘force of attraction rule’ 39

3.2              Hidden force of attraction rule or Extension of Article 7?. 40

3.2.1         Article 10(4) 40

3.2.2         Article 11(4) 43

3.2.3         Article 12(3), Article 13(3) and Article 21(2) 45

3.2.4         Payment by Permanent Establishment – Effective connected?. 46

3.2.5         Criteria for ‘effectively connected’ 48

3.2.6         Distinction between ‘force of attraction rule’ and Articles 10(4), 11(4), 12(3), 21(2). 49

3.3              Interplay between ‘force of attraction rule’ and other forms of Permanent Establishment  50

3.4              Interplay of ‘force of attraction rule’ and para 2 of Article 7 of the US Model  51

3.5              ‘Force of Attraction Rule’ under the ITA.. 53

3.6              Variations of ‘force of attraction rule’ 55

3.6.1         DTAAs signed by India. 55

3.6.2         DTAAs signed by UK.. 55

3.6.3         DTAAs signed by USA.. 55

3.6.4         DTAAs signed by Netherlands. 55

3.6.5         DTAAs signed by China. 56

Chapter 4: Para 2 of Article 7. 57

4.1              Analysis of certain terms used in para 2 of Article 7. 58

4.1.1         Distinct 58

4.1.2         Separate. 58

4.1.3         Same. 58

4.1.4         Similar 58

4.1.5         Wholly Independently. 59

4.1.6         There shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment 59

4.1.7         “With the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment”. 62

4.2              Profits attributable under Article 7 of the DTAA v. under section 9 of ITA   63

4.3              Profits from self. 71

4.4              Summary of OECD Commentary on para 2 of Article 7. 72

4.5              Variations of para 2 of Article 7. 73

4.5.1          DTAAs signed by India. 73

4.5.2          DTAAs signed by UK.. 75

4.5.3         DTAAs signed by USA.. 76

4.5.4          DTAAs signed by Netherlands. 77

Chapter 5: Profits from Transactions With Self.. 79

5.1              Can a person earn Profits from himself by trading with himself?. 79

5.1.1         Cases rejecting the possibility of profits from self. 79

5.1.2         Cases permitting profits from self. 82

5.2              Can one sell goods to himself?. 83

5.3              Can one pay dividend to self. 84

5.4              Does the law require deduction of tax from payment to self?. 85

5.5              Can a person make investments in itself?. 87

5.6              Specific provisions of law.. 88

5.6.1         Transfer pricing provisions. 88

5.6.2         Conversion of capital asset into stock in trade. 88

5.7              Conclusion.. 89

Chapter 6: Para 3 of Article 7 - OECD Model.. 90

6.1              Deductions subject to the provisions of the domestic law.. 90

6.2              Method of computation of business income. 91

6.3              Do all the provisions of the ITA become applicable?. 95

6.4              Permanent Establishment and MAT.. 96

6.5              Provisions of Article 7(3) and Presumptive taxation.. 96

6.6              Summary of OECD Commentary on para 3 of Article 7. 100

6.7              Calculation of income of Permanent Establishment as per OECD Commentary   102

6.8              Calculation of income of Permanent Establishment as per OECD Discussion Draft  103

6.9              Conflict between para 2 and para 3 of Article 7. 104

6.10            Variations of Para 3 of Article 7. 105

6.10.1      DTAAs signed by India. 105

6.10.2      DTAAs signed by UK.. 108

6.10.3      DTAAs signed by USA.. 110

6.10.4      DTAAs signed by Netherlands. 111

6.10.5      DTAAs signed by China. 112

Appendix A.. 114

Chapter 7: Para 3 of Article 7 -UN Model.. 115

7.1              Nature of expenses allowed / disallowed.. 116

7.2              Deductibility of income generating items for the enterprise. 117

7.3              Should the HO & Permanent Establishment both be engaged in banking activities?  118

7.4              Connotation of 'reimbursement of actual expenses' 119

7.4.1         Cash outflow.. 119

7.4.2         Specific expenses v. allocation of general expenses. 119

7.5              Payments to the same entity v. payments to the same enterprise. 121

7.6              Conflict between arm’s length principle and para 3 of Article 7. 123

7.7              Income of the Permanent Establishment from the head office. 124

7.8              Variations of para 3 of Article 7 of the UN Model. 124

7.8.1         DTAAs signed by India. 124

7.8.2         DTAAs signed by UK.. 125

7.8.3         DTAAs signed by USA.. 126

7.8.4         DTAAs signed by Netherlands. 127

7.8.5         DTAAs signed by China. 128

Chapter 8: Para 4 of Article 7. 130

8.1              Difference between Paragraph 24 and 25 of the OECD Commentary on Article 7  130

8.2              Under what circumstances Apportionment Method can be applied?. 131

8.3              Application of para 4 to a new line of business. 131

8.4              Requirement of consistent results with arm’s length method.. 132

8.5              What is ‘Customarily followed’?. 133

8.5.1         Can a method prescribed by the law be considered as a ‘customary method’?  133

8.5.2         Can an administrative practice adopted by the tax authorities be considered as a ‘customary method’?  134

8.6              Customary methods in India.. 135

8.7              Presumptive taxation and Article 7. 136

8.8              Global Formulary Apportionment Method.. 138

8.9              Variations of para 4 of the Model Convention.. 139

8.9.1         DTAAs signed by India. 140

8.9.2         DTAAs signed by UK.. 140

8.9.3         DTAAs signed by USA.. 141

8.9.4         DTAAs signed by Netherlands. 141

8.9.5         DTAAs signed by China. 142

Chapter 9: Para 5 of Article 7. 143

9.1              ‘Profits’ in terms of para 5 of Article 7. 143

9.2              ‘Mere purchase’ 145

9.3              Purchase of goods from other countries. 146

9.4              Purchase for other enterprise. 146

9.5              Purchases for the Permanent Establishment. 148

9.6              Purchase of capital assets. 148

9.7              Applicability of para 5 to purchase of services. 149

9.8              Other preparatory and auxiliary services. 149

9.9              Delivery of goods to the Permanent Establishment. 150

9.10            Variations of para 5 of Article 7. 151

9.10.1       DTAAs signed by India. 151

9.10.2      DTAAs signed by UK.. 152

9.10.3      DTAAs signed by USA.. 152

9.10.4       DTAAs signed by Netherlands. 153

9.10.5      DTAAs signed by China. 154

Chapter 10: Para 6 & 7 of Article 7 of OECD Model, other paras of US Model and other provisions of Article 7. 155

10.1            Para 6 of Article 7. 155

10.1.1       ‘Good and sufficient nature’, subjective terms. 155

10.1.2       Implications of the words ‘for the purpose of preceding paragraphs’ 155

10.2            Variations of para 6 of Article 7. 156

10.2.1      DTAAs signed by India. 156

10.2.2      DTAAs signed by UK.. 157

10.2.3      DTAAs signed by USA.. 157

10.2.4      DTAAs signed by Netherlands. 159

10.2.5      DTAAs signed by China. 159

10.3            Para 7 of Article 7. 159

10.3.1      Desired positions. 161

10.3.2      Rationale. 161

10.4            Variations of para 7. 162

10.4.1      DTAAs signed by India. 162

10.4.2      DTAAs signed by UK.. 163

10.4.3      DTAAs signed by USA.. 164

10.4.4      DTAAs signed by Netherlands. 165

10.4.5      DTAAs signed by China. 165

10.5            Other clauses in the US Model. 165

10.5.1      Para 7 of Article 7 of the US Model - Definition of ‘business profits’ 165

10.5.2      Variations of Para 7 of Article 7 - US Model 166

10.5.3      Para 8 of Article 7 of the US Model - Income after cessation of Permanent Establishment 167

10.5.4      Implications of the principles of the domestic law dealing with accrual of income  168

10.5.5      Taxation of income accruing after cessation of Permanent Establishment 169

10.5.6      Taxation of passive income accruing after cessation of Permanent Establishment 170

10.5.7      Extension of scope of Para 8 of Article 7. 173

10.5.8      Transfer of asset from the Permanent Establishment to the head office. 173

10.5.9      Attribution of expenses. 174

10.5.10    Variations of Para 8 of Article 7 - US Model 175

10.5.11    Other provisions found in Article 7. 176

Appendix A.. 183

Chapter 11: Para 2 of Article 3. 184

11.1            Meaning of “law”. 184

11.2            What is law concerning taxes in India.. 186

11.2.1      Definitions adopted from other laws. 186

11.2.2      Definitions of the General Clauses Act 187

11.2.3      General meaning given to certain words on the basis of other statutes. 187

11.2.4      Implications of Court Rulings. 188

11.2.5      Provisions of DTAAs. 188

11.3            Amendment to Model Convention and OECD Commentary.. 189

11.4            Static v. Ambulatory approach.. 189

11.4.1      Static Approach. 190

11.4.2      Ambulatory Approach. 190

11.5            Implications of inadequate definition in Article 3. 191

Chapter 12: Approaches for Ascertaining Income under the Income Tax Act   193

12.1            Statutory provisions facilitating computation of business income. 193

12.1.1      Provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961. 193

12.1.2      Provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. 194

12.2            Under what circumstances can Rule 10 be invoked?. 195

12.3            Methods of attribution prescribed by Rule 10. 196

12.3.1      Presumptive method. 196

12.3.2      Proportionate method. 197

12.3.3      Discretionary method. 197

12.4            Which of the three methods should be followed?. 198

12.5            Difficulties in calculating world income as per the provisions of the ITA   199

12.5.1      Certain types of income/expenses not contemplated by the provisions of ITA   200

12.5.2      Can certain business transactions not connected with the part of the business carried on in India be ignored in Proportionate method?. 201

12.5.3      Accounts maintained in other languages. 203

12.6            Applicability of Rule 10 to interest income. 204

12.7            Methods of computation of business income under the ITA.. 206

12.7.1      Computation method. 206

12.7.2      Presumptive method. 206

12.7.3      Proportionate method. 207

12.7.4      Preferred method for non-resident taxpayers under the ITA.. 207

Appendix A.. 209

Chapter 13:  Profits attributable to business operations in India.. 210

13.1            Profits attributable to business operations. 210

13.1.1      Where all the operations of the business are carried out in a foreign country. 211

13.1.2      Where all the operations are carried out in India. 211

13.1.3      Where some operations are carried out in India and some outside India. 212

13.2            What types of business operations attract profit attribution?. 212

13.3            What are profits reasonably attributable to operations?. 213

13.4            Arm’s Length Consideration and Profits Attributable. 214

13.4.1      CBDT Circular No. 23. 214

13.4.2      Circular No. 4 of 1958. 219

13.5            Judgments not considering adequacy or otherwise of the payments to Indian agents  219

13.6            Is Circular 23 still valid?. 220

13.7            Taxation of BPO units. 220

13.7.1      Circular no. 1 of 2004. 220

13.7.2      Circular no. 5 of 2004. 221

13.7.3      Recent AAR ruling in the case of Morgan Stanley. 221

Appendix A.. 222

Appendix B.. 223

Appendix C.. 225

Appendix D.. 229

Appendix E.. 232

Appendix F. 236

Appendix G.. 237

Appendix H.. 238

Appendix I. 241

Chapter 14: Methods of Profits Attribution.. 243

14.1            Profits attribution - A guesswork.. 243

14.2            Do the courts interfere with the profits attributed by the tax authorities  243

14.3            Methods of profit attribution.. 244

14.3.1      Method 1 - Resources deployed as a basis of attribution (basic) 245

14.3.2      Method 2 - Salaries paid / costs incurred as basis of profits attribution. 249

14.3.3      Method 3 - Outsourcing cost as a method of profits attribution. 250

14.3.4      Method 4 - DTAA Method. 254

Appendix A.. 256

Chapter 15: Head office expenses. 259

15.1            Deduction for head office expenses under ITA.. 259

15.1.1      Applicability in case there is no branch office in India. 259

15.1.2      Applicability to expenses incurred by other overseas branches. 260

15.1.3      Executive and general administration expenditure. 261

15.1.4      Allowance for expenditure when the non-resident carries on business only in India  262

15.1.5      Expenditure specifically incurred for Indian branches. 264

15.1.6      Does section 44C abet the difficulties faced by the assessing officers?. 264

15.1.7      Head office expenses and Rule 10. 265

15.1.8      Is it necessary to debit head office expenses to the P & L account of the Indian branch?  265

15.1.9      Is it necessary to remit funds to head office?. 266

15.1.10   Head Office expenses and deduction of tax at source. 266

15.2            Deduction for head office expenses and provisions of DTAA.. 268

15.2.1      Does para 3 give special treatment to head office expenses?. 271

15.2.2      Head office expenses and non-discrimination. 272

Appendix A.. 275

Appendix B.. 277

 

 

Chapter 16: Effectively Connected - Permanent Establishment and Dividend, Interest, Royalties, Fees for Technical Services, Other Income.. 283

16.1            Rationale for linking the Articles. 283

16.2            Does Article 7 result in higher tax liability?. 283

16.3            Articles dealing with ‘effectively connected’ 285

16.4            Meaning of ‘effectively connected with’ 287

16.5            Guidance from DTAAs signed by countries. 288

16.6            Implications of difference between ‘effectively connected with’ and ‘attributable to’ 289

16.7            Implications of the words ‘attributable to’ in the US Model. 291

16.8            ‘Business profits’ 292

16.9            Interplay between ‘force of attraction rule’ and ‘effectively connected to’ 292

16.10         Special feature of UN Model. 294

16.11         Variations of scope of ‘effectively connected’ in the UN Model. 295

16.12         Taxation of Royalty and Fees for Technical Services income as per the domestic law   295

16.12.1    Specific provisions of ITA dealing with Royalties / FTS -  upto March 31, 2003  296

16.12.2    Specific provisions of ITA dealing with Royalties / FTS -  after March 31, 2003  297

16.12.3    Taxability of Royalties or FTS for services rendered outside India. 300

16.13         Section 115A.. 303

Appendix A.. 305

Appendix B.. 310

Chapter 17: Permanent Establishment and Immovable Property.. 315

17.1  House Property Income v. Business Income. 315

17.2            Whether a let out property results in Permanent Establishment. 317

17.3            Article 7 v. Article 6. 318

17.3.1      Letting out premises as main activity. 318

17.3.2      Letting out as incidental activity. 319

17.4            Sale of immovable property.. 319

17.4.1      Immovable property as depreciable assets. 319

17.4.2      Immovable property as stock in trade. 319

17.4.3  Article 6(1) / (3) v. Article 13(1) 321

17.5            Forms of Permanent Establishment and Immovable property.. 323

17.5.1      Service PE & income from immovable property. 323

17.5.2      Agency PE and income from immovable property. 325

Chapter 18: Permanent Establishment and Capital Gains. 328

18.1            Capital gains on alienation of immovable property.. 328

18.2            Capital gains on alienation of movable property.. 328

18.2.1      ‘Movable property’ v. ‘Capital assets’ 329

18.2.2      Alienation v. Transfer 329

18.2.3      Movable business property. 333

18.3            Gains from alienation of Permanent Establishment. 336

18.4            Capital gains and other forms of Permanent Establishment. 337

Appendix A.. 341

Chapter 19: Permanent Establishment and Non-discrimination.. 342

19.1            Can a Permanent Establishment take benefit of Para 1 of Article 24?  343

19.2            Benefit of Para 1 to a company not having a Permanent Establishment  345

19.3            Does ITA discriminate on the basis of nationality?. 349

19.4            Taxation of foreign companies at a higher rate. 350

19.4.1      Societe General Bank (AAR) 351

19.4.2      ABN Amro Bank NV v. JCIT (ITA No. 692/Cal/2000) Calcutta ITAT.. 357

19.4.3      Specific provisions allowing tax rate discrimination. 358

19.4.4      Commentaries on DTAA.. 359

19.5            Legislative amendments to continue tax rate discrimination.. 360

19.5.1      Does Explanation override Para 2 of Article 24?. 361

19.5.2      Explanation does not try to plug para 1 of Article 24. 362

19.5.3      Validity of the amendment to section 90. 363

19.5.4      Validity of the amendment to section 90. 363

19.6            Interplay between Article 7(3) and Article 24(3) 363

19.7            Interplay between Article 7(4) and Article 24(3) 365

19.8            Instances of discrimination under the ITA.. 366

19.8.1      Rate of tax. 366

19.8.2      Disallowance under section 44C.. 366

19.8.3      Provisions of section 44D/115A.. 366

19.8.4      Presumptive taxation and discrimination. 366

19.8.5      Deduction of tax at source. 366

Chapter 20: Service PE.. 368

20.1            Definition of Service PE.. 368

20.2            Rationale of Service PE clause. 369

20.3            “Other personnel”. 369

20.3.1      Other personnel – whether it includes non-individuals?. 369

20.3.2      Use of the term ‘personnel’ in the domestic law.. 369

20.3.3      Dictionary meaning of the term ‘personnel’ 370

20.3.4      Use of the term ‘personnel’ in tax treaties. 370

20.3.5      Use of the term ‘personnel’ in the Commentary. 371

20.3.6      Other personnel – whether it includes employees of a non-individual contractor?  372

20.3.7      Should the ‘personnel’ not be resident of the host country?. 373

20.4            Benefit of exception contained in Article 5(7) 375

20.4.1      Effect of deeming fiction. 375

20.4.2      Rendering services v. carrying on business. 376

20.4.3      Can an independent agent render services on behalf of an enterprise?. 376

20.4.4      Domestic law meaning of the term ‘agent’ 378

20.4.5      Conclusion. 379

20.5            Should ‘other personnel’ be dependent on the enterprise?. 379

20.6            Overlap between Service PE and Agency PE?. 380

20.7            Benefit of exceptions contained in Article 5(4) 381

20.8            Meaning of ‘furnishing services within’ 383

20.8.1      Difference between ‘Services rendered within a country’ and ‘services rendered in a country’ 383

20.8.2      Presence of person availing services. 384

20.8.3      Absence of person availing services in the country - Direct utilization / consumption of services  384

20.8.4      Absence of person availing services in the country - Indirect utilization of services  386

20.8.5      Utilization of services in another country. 389

20.8.6      Provision of services to the head office. 390

20.9            Six months within any twelve months period.. 391

20.9.1      Month as a calendar month. 391

20.9.2      Month as a period of thirty days. 392

20.9.3      ‘Month’ as per the domestic law.. 392

20.9.4      Should the term ‘month’ be interpreted differently for twelve months calculation?  394

20.9.5      Should the services be rendered for a continuous period of six months?. 394

20.9.6      Man days v. Solar days. 394

20.9.7      Treatment of temporary gaps. 395

20.10         Same or connected project. 396

20.11         Service PE and requirements of Article 5(1) 397

20.12         Provision of services v. lending / deputation of employees. 398

20.13         One day PE.. 399

20.14         Service PE v. ‘Fees for technical services’ 399

20.14.1    Exclusion in Service PE clause. 400

20.14.2    Implications of non-exclusion. 405

20.14.3    Interplay between Service PE and Article 13(5) 406

20.14.4    Restricted article for ‘Technical fees’ 409

20.15         Service PE in terms of the provisions of the domestic law.. 409

20.16         Variations of Service PE clause. 412

20.16.1    DTAAs signed by India. 412

20.16.2    DTAAs signed by UK.. 416

20.16.3    DTAAs signed by USA.. 419

20.16.4    DTAAs signed by Netherlands. 420

20.16.5    DTAAs signed by France. 420

20.16.6    DTAAs signed by China. 420

Appendix A.. 423

Appendix B.. 425

Appendix C.. 430

Appendix D.. 433

Appendix E.. 436

Appendix F. 437

Appendix G.. 440

 

 

Chapter 21: Permanent Establishment and Return Filing Requirement   443

21.1            Return filing requirements under section 139. 443

21.2            Exemption under section 115A(5) 444

21.3            Section 139(1) v. Section 115A(5) 445

21.4            Deduction of tax at DTAA rates and return filing requirements. 446

21.5            Requirement of return filing when entire income exempt under DTAA   447

21.6            Two entity approach and return filing requirement. 448

21.7            Conclusion.. 449

Appendix A.. 450

Chapter 22: Taxation of a Liaison Office as Permanent Establishment   452

22.1            Forms of presence of foreign companies in India.. 452

22.1.1      Branch Office. 452

22.1.2      Project Office. 452

22.1.3      Liaison Office. 453

22.2            Meaning of business activity.. 454

22.2.1      'Business' under The Companies Act, 1956. 454

22.2.2      'Business' under the Bombay Shops and Establishment Act, 1948. 455

22.2.3      'Business' under the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999. 455

22.2.4      'Business' under the Income Tax Act, 1961. 455

22.3            Are foreign companies having liaison offices required to file return of income in India?  457

22.4            Tax liability of foreign companies having liaison office in India.. 458

22.4.1      Tax liability under the ITA.. 458

22.4.2      Tax liability under the DTAA.. 459

22.5            Preparatory or auxiliary activities. 460

Appendix A.. 464

Chapter 23: Scope of Option under section 90(2) 466

23.1            Example 1. 466

23.2            Example 2. 468

23.3            Example 3. 469

23.4            Example 4. 470

23.5            Example 5. 471

Chapter 24: Summary of OECD Discussion Drafts. 475

24.1            Applicability of OECD Work to the UN Model. 475

24.2            ‘Enterprise’ or ‘Enterprise as a whole’ to mean juridical entity.. 476

24.3            Summary of the discussion drafts. 477

Part A         478

Part B         497

Part C         509

Part D         525

Index.. 547



Publication Details:

Binding: Paperback, 551 pages
ISBN: 9781904905455
Format: 229mm x 152mm

Binding: Electronic book text
ISBN: 9781904905547

BIC Code: KFFD1, LNUC
Imprint: Spiramus Press


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